Buildings and Other Structures--Proposed LCRI

To: LC CPSO
From: ARLIS/NA CAC
Date: February 2002

What follows is a draft of an LCRI on establishing name authority headings for buildings and other structures submitted by the Cataloging Advisory Committee of the Art Libraries Society of North America (ARLIS/NA). The rule interpretation combines instructions is based on SCM H1334, AACR2 24, and LCRIs related to AACR2 24. It represents the majority opinion of the committee; however, the committee had some concerns about the proposal that we were unable to resolve internally, and that we have agreed to communicate to you when submitting the proposal.

The most problematic issue is the inclusion of place names in the headings. SCM 1334 mandates the use of geographic qualifiers for headings for all buildings and structures. Although no justification is given for this practice in the Subject Cataloging Manual, it is presumably based on the fact that a building or structure is normally bound to a particular place, and that one cannot fully identify the building without knowing its location. We are agreed that it is desirable to continue this practice (with some modification) when establishing the headings as names.

Members of the committee have nonetheless voiced some concerns about how this practice jibes with AACR2 24 rules for corporate body headings. During our discussions, several committee members pointed out that for most types of corporate body, place names are added only to resolve conflicts between identical headings. We have concluded, however, that there enough exceptions to this rule in Chapter 24 to justify the use of place names even when headings are not in conflict. For example, AACR2 prescribes the addition of place names (or other locations) to headings for conferences (24.7B4), exhibitions, fairs, and festivals (24.8B1), and local churches (24.10B); therefore, the addition of place names to buildings and other structures is not a complete departure from AACR2.

For all the categories mentioned above, AACR2 prescribes omitting the place name qualifier if it is an integral part of the name, while the LCRI for local churches mandates the addition of a place name for a local church, etc., even if the heading contains an indication of place (24.10B). A quick check of LCRIs and LC practice relating to categories of name heading formerly established as subject headings reveals different approaches. For example, the LCRI for cemeteries directs catalogers, "Qualify the name of the cemetery with the name of the local geographic place in which it is located, i.e. city, county, etc. ..."). Although there is no LCRI specifically for country clubs, recent name authority headings established by LC consistently qualify the name of the country club by the place name, even if the place name appears in the name. But the LCRI for airports requires a place name qualifier only if the name of the airport does not include the name of the place it serves.

After much discussion, we have come down on the side of omitting place name qualifiers when they appear as an integral part of the building name, except in cases when the place name is misleading or incorrect for the type of structure. For example, Brooklyn Bridge must be qualified by (New York, N.Y.) because Brooklyn is no longer the name of a city. But we recommend that headings such as Chateau de Versailles or Schloss Halbturn no longer be qualified by place names, since the location is adequately brought out in the structure's name. We would not, however, be averse to retaining place names for all headings. This has the advantage of minimizing disruption to the file and eliminating uncertainty about whether to add a place name or not in cases where the name by itself may not unambiguously identify the location of the structure (e.g. Springfield City Hall).

Another, smaller issue that could not be resolved satisfactorily was the construction of qualifiers for building details (section 5). There was a debate about whether to qualify the name of the detail (Hyman Liberman Memorial Door, Robert Lehman Wing) with the building, or the heading for the structure. The latter would include the geographical qualifier, and, sometimes, a qualifier such as “Building” or “Castle”. We came down on the side of using just the name of the building, unless the name of the building is non-distinctive (e.g. Metropolitan Museum of Art).


The Proposal

Buildings and Other Structures - Proposed rule interpretation combining instructions from SCM H1334 and chapter 24, AACR2, January, 2001

BACKGROUND: This rule interpretation provides guidelines for establishing names of buildings and other structures. The following types of entities are covered by these guidelines:

Bridges
Buildings (castles, houses, city halls, etc.)
Building details (windows, doors, domes, rooms) 
Fortresses
Gates
Monuments
Plazas
Tunnels
Walls

1. Form of entry.

a. Entry term. Enter the heading for a particular building or structure directly under its own name, in uninverted form. If the name of the building does not include the name of the place in which it is located, add the appropriate local place name qualifier.

Also enter structures in cities directly under name rather than under the name of the city. For building details, see sec. 5, below.
Do not formulate a heading for a named structure that consists solely of a generic term with a geographic qualifier unless there is evidence that this is also the proper name of the structure.
If the name of the building or structure changes establish a new heading under the new name.
Refer from the old heading to the new and from the new heading to the old. Example:

RCA Building (New York, N.Y.) [earlier form]
GE Building (New York, N.Y.) [later form]

b. Language. (1) Post-1500 entities. Establish the name of a structure built after 1500 in the vernacular of the country in which it is located.
(2) Pre-1500 entities. If the name of a structure of pre-1500 origin has become firmly established in an English form in English language usage, establish it in this English form. Determine this by consulting those English language reference sources that are readily available.
Do not treat informal generic references to the structure (such as "a castle in [...]"), as justification for establishing its name in English. If no firmly established English form exists, establish the name in the vernacular of the country in which it is located.
(3) Provisional headings. If, according to the above rules, the vernacular form is required but cannot be found either in the work being cataloged or in readily available reference sources, use the form found in the work being cataloged. If, when cataloging a subsequent work for which the heading is required, the vernacular form is found, change the established heading to the proper form.

2. Geographic qualifier.

a. General.
Qualify the name of the building with the name of the geographic entity in which the structure is located, unless the location is an integral part of the building’s name.
(1) Single jurisdiction. For a structure located wholly within a single jurisdiction, construct the geographic qualifier by placing the name of the jurisdiction in a single set of parentheses after the name of the structure.
(2) Two jurisdictions. For a structure in two jurisdictions, use the names of the two jurisdictions separated by the word and; add the names alphabetically unless the structure is located principally in one of the jurisdictions, in which case add the name of that jurisdiction as the first of the two names.
(3) More than two jurisdictions. For a structure in more than two juisdictions, omit the geographic qualifier.
(4) Latest name of jurisdiction. Use only the latest form of the name when designating a jurisdiction in the qualifier.
(5) Form of name to use. The form of name used in the qualifier is the form as established in the name authority file, with these exceptions:
* certain place names are abbreviated in a qualifier
* qualifying terms such as (Province), (State), (Federation), (Extinct city), etc., are omitted
* a place name qualified by the name of a larger place retains that qualifier when the smaller place is itself used as a qualifier, substituting a comma and a space for parentheses. For example, Chicago (Ill.) becomes (Chicago, Ill.).

b. Structure outside a city.
(1) General. Use the name of the country in which the structure is located as the geographic qualifier, except for the countries listed below.

Country Qualifier
Australia state name
Canada province name
Great Britain constituent country name
Malaysia state name
United States state name

(2) Islands. For a structure located on an individual island but outside a city, qualify according to the rules for qualifying entities on islands.

c. Structure in a city.
Use as a qualifier the name of the city in which the structure is located, as established in the name authority file.
If there are two or more structures with the same name in the same city add, after the name of the city, a space, a colon, another space, and a street name to create a distinctive heading, for example,

 
Williamsburgh Savings Bank Building (Brooklyn, New York, N.Y. : Broadway) 
and
Williamsburgh Savings Bank Building (Brooklyn, New York, N.Y. : Hanson Place).

In situations where buildings of the same name successively occupied the same site, add date spans to the qualifier, for example,

 
Minnesota State Capitol (Saint Paul, Minn. : 1883-1905)
and
Minnesota State Capitol (Saint Paul, Minn. : 1905-   ).

Structures in London, England. For a structure located in the original City of London (Corporation of London) or one of the inner boroughs, use the qualifier (London, England), for example, Buckingham Palace (London, England). The inner boroughs of London are Camden, Greenwich, Hackney, Hammersmith and Fulham, Islington, Kensington and Chelsea, Lambeth, Lewisham, Southwark, Tower Hamlets, Wandsworth, and the City of Westminster. For a structure located in one of the outer boroughs, use as a qualifier the borough name as established in the name authority file, for example, Hampton Court (Richmond upon Thames, London, England).

d. Temporary exhibition buildings.
For temporary buildings associated with a particular exhibition, exposition, world's fair, etc., qualify by the name of the exhibition as established in the name authority file, substituting commas for any colons or parentheses that are part of the name heading. Examples:

Name heading for exposition:  
Exposition internationale  (1937 :  Paris, France)
Exhibition building: 
Pavillon de l'Espagne (Exposition internationale, 1937, Paris, France)

Name heading for exposition: New York World's Fair (1964-1965) Exhibition building: New Jersey Tercentenary Pavilion (New York World's Fair, 1964-1965)

e. Bridges and tunnels.
For bridges and tunnels that link either two cities or a city with another jurisdiction or area, use as the geographic qualifier the name of the city with which the structure is predominantly associated, for example, Golden Gate Bridge (San Francisco, Calif.). If the structure is associated equally with both, use both, in alphabetical order.

f. Conflicts or other situations requiring additional qualifiers
(1) In the case where the heading for a structure constructed according to these rules would be the same as the heading for some other entity, or
(2) if the heading for the structure conflicts with the heading for the corporate body housed within the structure, or
(3) if the name of the structure does not convey the idea of a structure, the heading for the structure must be qualified in some way.

There are two possible techniques:
* Add the name of a smaller jurisdiction such as the county to the qualifier
* Designate the kind of structure involved by adding in the qualifier an appropriate generic term in English, for example, (France : Castle).
Generally, use the first technique when the conflicting entities are of the same type, for example, two buildings. Use the second technique when the conflicting entities are of different types, for example, a city and a building, or a corporate body and a building, or when the first technique will not resolve the conflict, or when the name of the structure does not convey its nature. For conflicting entities within a single city, see sec. 3.c., above.

Example:

heading for the corporate body
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)
heading for the building
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y. : Building)

4. References.

(1) Alternative forms of name. Refer from any alternative forms of the name, for example, vernacular forms if the name is established in English, or the English form if the name is established in the vernacular.
(2) Translating and rearranging elements. When refering in English to a heading established in the vernacular, translate any generic term in the heading into English. Rearrange the words in the heading to bring the proper name portion into the first position, if necessary. Example:

Castillo de Ponferrada (Ponferrada, Spain)
x Ponferrada Castle (Ponferrada, Spain)
(3) Proper name in the initial position. If the name of the structure as established in the heading has a generic term rather than a proper name in the first position, refer from the name inverted in such a way as to bring the proper name into the first position. However, omit this inverted reference if any of the other references in straight order begin with the same word. Example:
Castillo de Ponferrada (Ponferrada, Spain)
x Ponferrada Castle (Ponferrada, Spain)
Omit this:
x Ponferrada, Castillo de (Ponferrada, Spain)
Since the previous reference begins with the same word.

5. Building details. Enter a named building detail that forms a part of the basic fabric of a building directly under its name. Use as a qualifier the name of the building, generally followed by a comma and the geographic location of the building. Examples of this type of detail are windows, doors, portals, domes, rooms. Establish a heading only if the detail is named.

Model:

[name of detail] ([name of structure], [geographic qualifier])
Refer from the name of the detail as a subordinate unit of the larger structure; model:
[name of structure (geographic and other qualifiers). name of detail]

Example: Hyman Liberman Memorial Door (South African National Gallery, Cape Town, South Africa) x South African National Gallery (Cape Town, South Africa). Hyman Liberman Memorial Door

6. Parts of complex structures. Also establish the name of a component part of a complex structure directly under its own name, following the pattern in sec. 5, above, for example, a pagoda forming part of a temple complex.


... go to report from Midwinter 2004 meeting of SAC Task Force on Named Buildings ...